How many Main Components does an Aircraft Have?

As with any vehicle, there are many components and parts that come together and make up an aircraft. To put it into perspective, a single Boeing 747-800 is comprised of over six million different parts. With the plethora of parts that comprise an aircraft, some the main integral components that are used across all types include the fuselage, wings, empennage, power plant, and landing gear. In this blog, we will provide some insight into these various parts, and their functions to aircraft.

Fuselage: The fuselage is the structure that serves as the body of the aircraft. The fuselage contains the cockpit, passenger sections, as well as the cargo area. The fuselage is where all other components are connected to. Trusses are created through welding tubing together to create a strong structural integrity. The fuselage also proves important as it helps guide the position and stability of the aircraft during flight.
Wings: Wings can come in a plethora of designs, sizes, and shapes. Regardless of design, wings and their attached flaps aid flight through the generation of lift. The wings are attached to the fuselage, and depending on the amount of wings and placement, different flight characteristics can be achieved. The flaps on the wings help generate lift by their deployment and shapes, and help create control for direction and altitude.
Empennage: The empennage of an aircraft serves similar functions of the wings and flaps, aiding with the ability to steer and move up and down. The empennage often consists of a vertically-mounted rudder and a horizontally-mounted elevator, all being attached to the tail end of the fuselage.
Power Plant: The power plant of the aircraft in comprised of the engine and propeller and serve to generate and utilize thrust and power of an aircraft. The engine creates power by combusting a mixture of jet fuel and oxygen from the air. The propeller then takes that energy created by combustion and then creates propulsive force.
Landing Gear: The landing gear is needed at the start and finish of a flight. Landing gear enables an aircraft to taxi around runways, gates, and hangers while on the ground. When landing, shock absorbers take on the force of landing, while brake systems aid in slowing the aircraft and wheels until stop. These braking systems are operated either hydraulically or pneumatically.


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